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9th World Dermatology and Paediatric Dermatology Congress, will be organized around the theme “Exploring advancements and Best Practices in Dermatology & Venereology”

World dermatology 2016 is comprised of 21 tracks and 181 sessions designed to offer comprehensive sessions that address current issues in World dermatology 2016.

Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks. All related abstracts are accepted.

Register now for the conference by choosing an appropriate package suitable to you.

Allergology a branch of medicine concerned with allergy. IT deals with the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of allergic and related diseases. This dermatology conference include the study of methods of controlling allergic reactions, human and animal models of hypersensitivity and other aspects of basic and applied clinical allergy in its broadest sense.

  • Track 1-1Allergy
  • Track 1-2 hypersensitivity

Immunodermatology studies skin as an organ of immunity in health and disease. Several areas have special attention, such as photo-immunology (effects of UV light on skin defense), inflammatory diseases such as allergic contact dermatitis and atopic eczema, presumably autoimmune skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, and finally the immunology of microbial skin diseases such as retrovirus infections and leprosy. New therapies in development for the immunomodulation of common immunological skin diseases include biologicals aimed at neutralizing TNF-alfa and chemokine receptor inhibitors.

  • Track 2-1immunity
  • Track 2-2photo-immunology
  • Track 2-3allergic contact dermatitis
  • Track 2-4 vitiligo
  • Track 2-5psoriasis
  • Track 2-6 leprosy
  • Track 2-7immunological skin diseases

Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the hair, nails, skin and its diseases. It is a specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist treats diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin includes Acne is a long-term skin condition characterized by areas of blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, greasy skin, and possibly scarring. Skin cancer & malignancy of epithelial cells, Contact dermatitis, Kawasaki syndrome, Inflammation, scars & rashes, Viral skin diseases. The global dermatology markets reached $15.8 billion in 2012. The market is expected to reach $16.1 billion in 2013 and $18.5 billion in 2018 for a CAGR of 2.8%. An overview of the global market for treatments of skin diseases, perhaps the most common of human afflications.

The global dermatology markets reached $15.8 billion in 2012. The market is expected to reach $16.1 billion in 2013 and $18.5 billion in 2018 for a CAGR of 2.8%. An overview of the global market for treatments of skin diseases, perhaps the most common of human afflictions.

  • Track 3-1Acne
  • Track 3-2Dermatopathology Diagnosis
  • Track 3-3Rosacea
  • Track 3-4Psoriasis
  • Track 3-5Viral skin diseases
  • Track 3-6Inflammation, scars & rashes
  • Track 3-7Kawasaki syndrome
  • Track 3-8Contact dermatitis
  • Track 3-9Skin cancer & malignancy of epithelial cells
  • Track 3-10Onychomycosis

There is no cure for eczema, but, in most cases, it is manageable. The word eczema comes from a Greek word that means to effervesce or bubble or boil over. This website will help you answer the question “What Is Eczema?” and help you understand it. It’s important to remember that many people have eczema. Over 30 million American may have it. There is no need to be embarrassed by your eczema. You are not alone. Atopic Dermatitis (which is often called eczema) is an itchy, red rash. It can appear all over the body. Many people have it on their elbows or behind their knees. Babies often have eczema on the face, especially the cheeks and chin. They can also have it on the scalp, trunk (chest and back), and outer arms and legs.

  • Eczema
  • Symptoms of Eczema
  • Types of Eczema
  • Causes & Triggers
  • Treatment
  • Child Eczema
  • Track 4-1Eczema
  • Track 4-2Symptoms of Eczema
  • Track 4-3Types of Eczema
  • Track 4-4Causes & Triggers
  • Track 4-5Treatment
  • Track 4-6Child Eczema

Dermatopathology is a joint subspecialty of dermatology and pathology and to a lesser extent of surgical pathology that focuses on the study of cutaneous diseases at a microscopic and molecular level. It also encompasses analyses of the potential causes of skin diseases at a basic level. Dermatopathologists work in close association with clinical dermatologists. In fact, most of them are trained primarily in dermatology themselves. Dermatologists are able to recognize most skin diseases based on their appearances, anatomic distributions, and behavior. Sometimes, however, those criteria do not allow a conclusive diagnosis to be made, and a skin biopsy is taken to be examined under the microscope or are subject to other molecular tests. That process reveals the histology of the disease and results in a specific diagnostic interpretation. In some cases, additional specialized testing needs to be performed on biopsies, including immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and molecular-pathologic analysis.

2015 Global Dermatology Diagnostics Devices Industry Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the world’s major regional market conditions of the Dermatology Diagnostics Devices industry, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe and Asia) and the main countries (United States, Germany, Japan, China). 2.9% annual growth is there in the dermatological market for diagnostic procedure and the market statistics reached $13bn.

  • Track 5-1Clinical Pathology
  • Track 5-2Dermatopathology Diagnosis
  • Track 5-3Veterinary Dermatopathology
  • Track 5-4Forensic Pathology
  • Track 5-5Cytopathology
  • Track 5-6Pediatric Pathology
  • Track 5-7Dermatopathologists
  • Track 5-8Gangrene

Psoriasis is an immune condition, which causes symptoms on the skin and sometimes the joints. When a person has psoriasis, their skin replacement process speeds up, taking just a few days to replace skin cells that usually take 21-28 days. This abundance of skin cells builds up to form raised ‘plaques’ on the skin, which can also be flaky, scaly, red on caucasian skin, darker patches on darker skin tones, and itchy. Psoriasis can occur on any area of the body, including the scalp, hands, feet and genitals, although different types tend to occur on different areas.

  • Track 6-1Plaque Psoriasis
  • Track 6-2Scalp Psoriasis
  • Track 6-3Guttate Psoriasis
  • Track 6-4Pustular Psoriasis
  • Track 6-5Psoriasis in Sensitive Areas
  • Track 6-6Nail Psoriasis
  • Track 6-7Psoriasis Treatments
  • Track 6-8Psoriatic Arthritis
  • Track 6-9Children and Psoriasis

The field of esthetic and cosmetic dermatology has gained remarkable interest all over the world. The major advantage of recent years is the high scientific levels of the most significant new developments in techniques and pharmacotherapy and other nonsurgical approaches like Laser resurfacing, Sclerotherapy, Soft tissue augmentation. With an aging population and increasing consumer awareness, demand for high-quality, innovative cosmeceutical products will be on the rise in 2014.

In fact, Global Information, an information service company that partners with research firms worldwide, recently released statistics that stated that the global cosmeceuticals market should reach $31.84 billion by 2016. According to another report released by Medical Insight, the total retail sales of home-use devices and disposables are expected to rise by 11.4 percent per year to exceed $1.5 billion in 2017.

  • Track 7-1Facial Anatomy and Neuromodulators for the Upper Face
  • Track 7-2Hair and nail disorders
  • Track 7-3Stem cells and PRP in Aesthetic Medicine
  • Track 7-4Microdermabrasion, Cosmeceuticals, and Chemical Peels
  • Track 7-5Non-Invasive Body Contouring Therapy
  • Track 7-6Skin Considerations in Aesthetic Medicine
  • Track 7-7Light Based Therapy in Aesthetic Medicine
  • Track 7-8Male & female anti-aging and rejuvenation
  • Track 7-9Anesthesia of the Face and Dermal Fillers
  • Track 7-10Cosmetic or aesthetic dentistry

Vitiligo is a common, genetic, autoimmune skin disease in which there is loss of pigment from areas of the skin resulting in irregular white spots or patches. The skin has normal texture. Vitiligo may appear at any age. Although it is a progressive condition, many people experience years or decades without developing new spots.

Autoimmune disorders are characterized by the body's immune system attacking its own tissue or cells, in this case, the melanocytes (pigment cells which give the skin its color). Normally the immune system's white blood cells and antibodies help protect the body from harmful substances, called antigens, which may be derived from bacteria, viruses, toxins, or other sources.  In an autoimmune disorder, the immune system mistakenly begins to attack healthy body tissue. Scientists are of the opinion that, in most people with autoimmune disease, the immune system is basically normal outside of the autoimmune attack. Thus, people with generalized vitiligo are thought to have otherwise healthy immune systems except for the specific immune response to melanocytes.

Vitiligo is not contagious in any way. The precise cause of Vitiligo is not well-understood, though it seems to be the result of a combination of genetic, immunologic, biochemical and neurogenic factors.  It is often, though not always, seen in families.  Though the condition has no other known effects on the body, the psychological and social effects are well documented.

Today, vitiligo is a treatable condition, though treatment can take two years or longer to regain pigment, and repigmentation may not be 100%. There is more research being conducted than ever before; in Europe, in Asia, and in the U.S., new technologies and research are changing physicians' approaches to the condition. The recent mapping of the human genome has paved the way for advanced genetic research into vitiligo, and other cell-based theories are also gaining attention.

Many experts believe that with genetic and biomedical technology improving as they are, that within the next few years, we will see a greater understanding of vitiligo, as well as faster and more reliable treatments for this, and other autoimmune conditions

  • Track 8-1What is Vitiligo?
  • Track 8-2Genetics & Incidence
  • Track 8-3Different Types of Vitiligo
  • Track 8-4Vitiligo Symptoms
  • Track 8-5Diagnosis
  • Track 8-6Will it Spread?
  • Track 8-7Coping

It is estimated that 1 in 52 men and 1 in 77 women in the US will be diagnosed with melanoma in their lifetime. Despite the fact that melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing forms of human cancer, new treatments have been slow in developing and the mortality rate continues to rise. We now know that there are several well-defined risk factors for this form of cancer.

Our report contains quantitative and qualitative analytical content, covering the present and future of the global cancer drugs market. Although our report is market-centered, we include medical and technical information. We include analyses of under-met market needs from the present looking forward. GMR Data forecast that Avastin will reach its financial peak by 2018 before losing its patent exclusivity in 2019. The drug is also set to benefit from a potential combination therapy, with EGFL7, for the treatment of colorectal and lung cancer, similar to that of Herceptin and Perjeta.

  • Track 9-1Pediatric melanoma
  • Track 9-2Skin cancers after organ transplantation
  • Track 9-3Non-melanoma skin cancer
  • Track 9-4Human melanoma
  • Track 9-5Cutaneous melanoma

A pediatric dermatologist is a dermatologist who specializes in diagnosing and treating children, including newborns and infants. This medical doctor first becomes a dermatologist. Extra study and training are needed to become a pediatric dermatologist. Some diseases that affect the skin, hair, or nails are more common in children. Some of these diseases only occur in children. Diseases that a pediatric dermatologist is likely to treat include: Atopic dermatitis (also called eczema), Birthmarks (including port-wine stains), Psoriasis, Skin disease that a child is born with, Skin infections, Vitiligo, Warts. 

A total of 10,000 consecutive new patients were studied; 96% were children of Arab descent. A female preponderance (52%) was observed, and infants constituted the largest group within the patient population (28.7%). A total of 162 dermatoses were recorded. Atopic dermatitis was the most prevalent dermatosis (31.3%), followed by viral warts (13.1%), alopecia areata (6.7%), pityriasis alba (5.25%), psoriasis (4%), and diaper dermatitis (4%). Atopic dermatitis was the most frequently seen dermatosis in children of all age groups, whereas, viral warts were more prevalent in school-age children.

  • Track 10-1Neonatal dermatology
  • Track 10-2Childhood infectious diseases
  • Track 10-3Papulosquamous and eczematous dermatoses
  • Track 10-4Pigmented lesions
  • Track 10-5Bullous diseases
  • Track 10-6Epidermal,appendageal,and dermal tumours
  • Track 10-7Genodermatoses

Our immune system is an amazing network of cells that function from very basic to highly complex levels. The purpose of this system is to protect us from our environment and watch for any early damage in our own cells. Sometimes, however, the system goes awry and misreads signals. As a result, our defenses do not recognize our own body at work, and begin “attacking” cells. This leads to illnesses called autoimmune (self-immune) diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (inflammation of the joints), systemic lupus erythematosus (commonly known as “lupus,” an inflammatory disease of connective tissue), and vasculitis (inflammation of a vessel of the body).

  • Track 11-1Lupus erythamatosus
  • Track 11-2Dermatomyositis
  • Track 11-3Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)

Genodermatoses are inherited genetic skin conditions often grouped into three categories: chromosomal, single gene, and polygenetic.

  • Track 12-1Basic principles of genetics
  • Track 12-2Genetic basis of cutaneous diseases
  • Track 12-3Biology of keratinocytes
  • Track 12-4Icthyoses, erythrokeratodermas and related disorders
  • Track 12-5Keratodermas

There are various diagnostic tests that can be performed "in house" by veterinarians to help with everyday dermatological cases. Skin scrapings should be the most common diagnostic test performed in veterinary dermatology. A dull scalpel blade or similar instrument is moistened with mineral oil and used to scrape away some of the epidermis, in which may reside a number of different parasites. A trichogram is used to visualize the hair for evidence of pruritus (self- inflicted alopecia), dermatophytosis, endocrine alopecia, pigmentation defects, and growth phase. For Allergy Testing Atopic Dermatitis – Intradermal testing (IDT, IDST) and aeroallergen-specific IgE serum testing (ASIST, in vitro testing) are considered important tests for the demonstration of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity in atopic dogs.

2015 Global Dermatology Diagnostics Devices Industry Report is a professional and in-depth research report on the world’s major regional market conditions of the Dermatology Diagnostics Devices industry, focusing on the main regions (North America, Europe and Asia) and the main countries (United States, Germany, Japan, China). 2.9% annual growth is there in the dermatological market for diagnostic procedure and the market statistics reached $13bn.

 

  • Track 13-1Skin Scrapings
  • Track 13-2Trichograms
  • Track 13-3Dermatoscopy for pigmented lesions, such as moles
  • Track 13-4Biopsies
  • Track 13-5Patch testing for contact allergy
  • Track 13-6KOH examination for superficial fungal infections
  • Track 13-7Novel and advanced therapies in veterinary dermatology
  • Track 13-8Immunodermatology testing

Androgenic alopecia (also known as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia androgenetica, or male pattern baldness) is hair loss that occurs due to an underlying susceptibility of hair follicles to androgenic miniaturization. It is the most common cause of hair loss and will affect up to 70% of men and 40% of women at some point in their lifetimes. Men typically present with hairline recession at the temples and vertex balding, while women normally thin diffusely over the top of their scalps. Both genetic and environmental factors play a role, and many etiologies remain unknown.Classic androgenic hair loss in males begins above the temples and vertex, or calvaria, of the scalp. As it progresses, a rim of hair at the sides and rear of the head remains. This has been referred to as a 'Hippocratic wreath', and rarely progresses to complete baldness. The Hamilton-Norwood scale has been developed to grade androgenic alopecia in males.Female androgenic alopecia is known colloquially as "female pattern baldness", although its characteristics can also occur in males. It more often causes diffuse thinning without hairline recession; and, like its male counterpart, rarely leads to total hair loss. The Ludwig scale grades severity of androgenic alopecia in females.Hair loss in children is a more prevalent occurrence than most people imagine. Currently children's hair loss is responsible for approximately 3% of all pediatric office visits in this country. Trichotillomania, also known as trichotillosis or hair pulling disorder) is an impulse disorder characterized by the compulsive urge to pull out one's hair, leading to noticeable hair loss and balding, distress, and social or functional impairment. It appears in the ICD chapter 5 on Mental and behavioural disorders and is often chronic and difficult to treat.Trichotillomania may be present in infants, but the peak age of onset is 9 to 13. It may be triggered by depression or stress. Owing to social implications the disorder is often unreported and it is difficult to accurately predict its prevalence; the lifetime prevalence is estimated to be between 0.6% and 4.0% of the overall population. Common areas for hair to be pulled out are the scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows, legs, arms, hands, nose and the pubic areas.

Industry statistics and market size for hair loss treatment is annually $4bn. Number of U.S men experiencing hair loss is 35 Million, number of U.S women experiencing hair loss is 21 Million, number of hair loss sufferers, world-wide, seeking professional treatment is 811,363.

 

  • Track 14-1Male and female pattern baldness
  • Track 14-2Pediatric hair loss
  • Track 14-3Influence of stress and psychology on hair
  • Track 14-4Trichotillomania
  • Track 14-5Grey and white hair -Pigment loss
  • Track 14-6Anorexia and Vitamin A poisoning: effects on hair loss
  • Track 14-7Effect of drugs on hair
  • Track 14-8Laser and Light Based treatment for Hair Removal
  • Track 14-9Hair loss: Hormonal and environmental influences

Follicular unit extraction (FUE), also known as follicular transfer (FT), is one of two primary methods of obtaining follicular units, naturally occurring groups of one to four hairs, for hair transplantation.The other method is called strip harvesting. In FUE harvesting, individual follicular units are extracted directly from the hair restoration patient's donor area, ideally one at a time. This differs from strip-harvesting because, in strip harvesting, a strip of skin is removed from the patient and then dissected into many individual follicular units. The follicular units obtained by either method are the basic building blocks of follicular unit transplantation (FUT).Nowadays FUE technology has grown into Advanced FUE. The main difference is that Advanced FUE enables the creation of larger donor pools by harvesting follicles from areas outside the head such as: chest, legs, arms, abdomen, back, face, and beard. Also Advanced FUE addresses the fact that hair often grows in a curved trajectories. With standard FUE surgical there is the assumption that this growth occurs as a straight line. This entails a risk of damaging the follicles during the excision and retrieval of the grafts.Androgenic alopecia (also known as androgenetic alopecia, alopecia androgenetica, or male pattern baldness) is hair loss that occurs due to an underlying susceptibility of hair follicles to androgenic miniaturization. Hair Transplantation conference is a surgical technique that moves individual hair follicles from a part of the body called the 'donor site' to bald or balding part of the body known as the 'recipient site'. Nowadays, there are two popular hair transplant methods, and both use micrograft technique to produce natural looking results. These hair transplant methods are known as FUT (Follicular Unit Transplant) and FUE (Follicular Unit Extraction).a. FUT hair transplant: FUT is the first method used by the surgeons when they started practicing micrograft hair transplant technique. In FUT, the surgeon extracts a strip of scalp from the back of the head. After closing the remaining scalp, the surgery team divides this strip into micrografts, also known as follicular units. The plantation of these small micrografts requires very small holes. Your surgeon creates these tiny holes and plants micrografts in these holes.b. FUE hair transplant: FUE is a more advanced micrograft hair transplant technique. Instead of removing a strip of your scalp, your surgeon extracts individual hair follicles one by one. This results in less trauma to the donor site. Additionally, the FUE method does not produce a linear scar, as FUT method produces. The FUE method produces tiny pinhole scars that are not visible even with very short hair.

Industry statistics and market size for hair loss treatment is annually $4bn. Number of U.S men experiencing hair loss is 35 Million, number of U.S women experiencing hair loss is 21 Million, number of hair loss sufferers, world-wide, seeking professional treatment is 811,363.

 

  • Track 15-1Follicular unit transplantation and extraction
  • Track 15-2Androgenic Alopecia
  • Track 15-3Contemporary hair transplantation
  • Track 15-4Micrograft and hair restoration techniques

Venereal Diseases or Sexually Transmitted Diseases or Sexually Transmitted Infections are the infections which are commonly spread by sex especially vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex.

Based on key trends tracked, it is anticipated that the diagnostic testing market for sexually transmitted diseases is forecast to reach $167.4 billion by 2020, registering a CAGR of 8.5% during 2014-2020. The growth in the market is chiefly attributed to the high growth in HIV and HPV testing, especially in Asia Pacificand African regions along with complimenting growth rate of the European market.

  • Track 16-1 HIV/AIDS
  • Track 16-2 Syphilis
  • Track 16-3 Gonorrhoea
  • Track 16-4 Genital Herpes
  • Track 16-5 Trichomoniasis

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family. This virus usually infect humans. HPVs infect only in keratinocytes of the skin or mucous membranes. Most HPV infections will cause no physical symptoms; however, in some people may cause premalignant lesions that results cancer in cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus. In particular, HPV16 and HPV18 are known to cause around 70% of cervical cancer cases.

The global market for diagnostic testing of STDs is segmented based on types of STDs – Chlamydia testing, Gonorrhoea testing, Syphilis testing, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) testing, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) testing and Chancroid testing. HIV testing, which is the third largest STD testing market, would grow at a CAGR of 10.9% during 2014 – 2020.

  • Track 17-1 Warts:- Common, Plantar, Flat, Anogenital
  • Track 17-2 Anal dysplasia
  • Track 17-3 Genital Cancers
  • Track 17-4 Epidermodysplasia verruciformis
  • Track 17-5 Focal epithelial Hyperplasia
  • Track 17-6 Oral Papillomas
  • Track 17-7 Laryngeal papillomatosis
  • Track 17-8 Oropharyngeal Cancer

Blood tests can confirm the diagnosis of HIV or later Syphilis. Some STI’s can be confirmed with a urine sample. If someone have active genital sores, testing fluid and samples from the sores may be done to diagnose the infection. Laboratory tests of material from a genital sore or discharge are used to diagnose the most common bacterial and some viral STI’s at an early stage.

The market diagnostic testing of STDs was valued at $96.7 billion in 2013 with a corresponding test volume of 4,204 million. The diagnostic testing of STDs is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 8.5% over the forecast period 2014-2020 to reach market size of $167.4 billion in 2020. The test volume will rise to 5,520 million in 2020. The market for STD testing devices was valued at $7.7 billion in 2013 with laboratory testing devices accounted for the most of the market and PoC devices shall grow at fastest rate.

  • Track 18-1 Clinical diagnosis
  • Track 18-2 Screening for the test
  • Track 18-3 High risk of the infections in pregnant woman
  • Track 18-4 Potential for false positives and negatives
  • Track 18-5 Long term outlook

The interventions for preventing the spread of STDs and HIV should take into consideration the role of human physiology, human behavioural patterns and sociocultural influences. STD and HIV prevention cannot be addressed by behaviour and barrier methods alone. Other factors such as family units and values, provision of housing to minimize disruption of family life, employment, education, religion, culture, age, gender and so on need to be kept in mind at all times.

In 2011 and 2012, 2.2 million beneficiaries received free sexually transmitted disease screenings and counseling sessions. And more than 66,000 received free H.I.V. tests.

 

  • Track 19-1 Primary prevention
  • Track 19-2 Secondary prevention
  • Track 19-3 Potential sources of STD Care
  • Track 19-4 The Role of Specialized STD clinics
  • Track 19-5 Effective STD Care

UNAIDS and WHO strongly recommend the adoption of the syndromic diagnosis and treatment of STDs. Syndromic case management is based on classifying the main causative agents giving rise to a particular clinical condition or syndrome, such as the syndrome of urethral discharge in men. It then uses flowcharts which help the health service provider reach a diagnosis and decide on treatment. The treatment covers all the important causes of the syndrome.

An industrial survey conducted by WHO/Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases in 2003 found that companies may spend as little as US$2000 or as much as US$2 000 000 on diagnostic trials of different products.

  • Track 20-1 National Guidelines for the Case Management
  • Track 20-2 Availability of the means for consultation and examination
  • Track 20-3 Consistent Availability of Appropriate Drugs
  • Track 20-4 Program Management
  • Track 20-5 Patient Management

Most STDs can be effectively treated with drugs. However some strains of bacteria and viruses such as HIV have become resistant to some drugs making treatment more difficult. Resistance to drugs is likely to increase because drugs are sometimes misused. People who are treated for a bacterial STD should abstain from their sexual intercourse until the infection has been eliminated from them and their sex partners. Thus, sex partners should be tested and treated simultaneously. Viral STDs specially Herpes, hepatitis B and C and HIV infection usually can be controlled but not yet cure except hepatitis C.

The WHO estimates that >340 million new cases of curable bacterial STIs (chlamydia, 92 million; gonorrhoea, 62 million; syphilis, 12 million; and trichomonas, 174 million) occur every year, >90% of which occur in settings with no or limited access to STI laboratory services. 

  • Track 21-1 Treatment for Bacterial STD
  • Track 21-2 Treatment for Viral STD
  • Track 21-3 Antibiotics or Antiviral drugs used